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WordPress upiti ka bazi omogućavaju da se kroz mehanizam WordpPress loop-a prikupe podaci i prikažu na stranici. WP_Query je klasa koja stoji iza svih upita ka bazi, a $wp_query je default-ni objekat, i u njemu se čuvaju rezultati upita iz MySQL baze.

Upiti u WordPress-u mogu da se upute i preko funkcija query_posts() i get_posts() koje se takodje zasnivaju na objektu $wp_query. Ali je preporuka da se ipak koristi objekat $wp_query() kao najbolje rešenje, mada takodje može biti prihvatljivo koristiti query_posts() funkciju, dok treba izbegavati funkciju get_posts()!
Ukoliko se menja standardni loop tj. ako se koristio neki custom upit neophodno je po završetku loop-a povratiti prvobitnu defaultnu globalnu $post promenljivu. Ovo se postiže sa funkcijom wp_reset_postdata() postavljenom na mestu gde prestaje petlja tj. odmah iza endwhile.

Za bolje razumevanje prethodno objašnjenih pojmova proučite sliku pored.

Primeri korišćenja različitih vrsta upita
  1. Upiti na osnovu klase WP_Query
  2. Koristeći predefinisane funkcije:
    • query_posts()
    • get_posts()

WP_Query

Opšte principi korišćenja

Parametri objekta WP-Query omogućavaju da se naprave specifični upiti ka bazi. Objekat $wp_query ima ugradjene mnoge metode ali ipak najčešće korišćene su:

  • $wp_query->have_posts()

    Koristi se u loop-u ili ispred njega i proverava da li trenutni WP upit ka bazi ima neki razultat tj. da li $wp_query objekat ima vrednost. To je boolean funkcija koja vraća TRUE ili FALSE. Notacija $wp_query->have_posts() u standardnom loop-u je have_posts()

  • $wp_query->the_post()

    Ova metoda dohvata sledeći post, i pravi dostupnim globalnu $post promenjivu unutar petlje i sve što ta globalna promenjiva daje:

    • $post>ID – ID of the current post.
    • $post–>post_category – Retrieves the ID of the post category.
    • $post–>post_parent – ID of the page parent. Useful for creating custom navigational elements.
    • $post–>post_title – Post Title
    • $post–>post_excerpt – Post excerpt
    • $post>post_content – Retrieves all of the post content, along with any markup.
    • $post–>post_name – Retrieving the slug of a post.
    • $post–>guid – Post Url
    • $post–>post_author – ID of post author post_parent
    • $post–>post_type – Returns the type, page or post.
    • $post–>menu_order – Returns the menu order as set in the post/page editing window. Often menu items are sorted via this value.
    • $post–>post_date – Retrieves the integer timestamp for when the post was published. The output can be customized.
    • $post–>post_modified – Retrieves the integer timestamp for when the post was last modified.
    • $post–>post_status – Retrieves one of five possible posts statuses: publish, private, draft, pending, future.
    • $post–>comment_count – Returns the number of comments, pings, and trackbacks for a given post.

Metode objekta WP_Query

  • init() Initialise the object, set all properties to null, zero or false.
  • parse_query( $query ) Takes a query string defining the request, parses it and populates all properties apart from $posts, $post_count, $post and
    $current_post.
  • parse_query_vars() Reparse the old query string.
  • get( $query_var ) Get a named query variable.
  • set( $query_var, $value ) Set a named query variable to a specific value.
  • &get_posts() Fetch and return the requested posts from the database. Also populate $posts and $post_count.
  • next_post() (to be used when in The Loop) Advance onto the next post in $posts. Increment $current_post and set $post to the (new) current post object (note:
    this does not set the global $post variable, only the WP_Query object’s instance variable.) Returns the current post object (This is deprecated pleases use ‘next_post_link()’ )
  • the_post() (to be used when in The Loop) Advance onto the next post, and set the global $post variable.
  • have_posts() (to be used when in The Loop, or just before The Loop) Determine if we have posts remaining to be displayed. Calls rewind_posts() and returns
    false if don’t have posts remaining. Because of the rewind, you can’t rely on have_posts() staying false. See have_posts() note.
  • rewind_posts() Reset $current_post and $post.
  • &query( $query ) Call parse_query() and get_posts(). Return the results of get_posts().
  • get_queried_object() Set $queried_object if it’s not already set and return it.
  • get_queried_object_id() Set $queried_object_id if it’s not already set and return it.
  • WP_Query( $query = ” ) (constructor) If you provide a query string, call query() with it.

Promenjive WP_Query objekta su:

  • $query – Holds the query string that was passed to the $wp_query object by WP class.
  • $query_vars-An associative array containing the dissected $query: an array of the query variables and their respective values.
  • $queried_object-Applicable if the request is a category, author, permalink or Page. Holds information on the requested category, author, post or Page.
  • $queried_object_id-If the request is a category, author, permalink or post / page, holds the corresponding ID.
  • $posts-Gets filled with the requested posts from the database.
  • $post_count-The number of posts being displayed.
  • $found_posts-The total number of posts found matching the current query parameters
  • $max_num_pages-the total number of pages. Is the result of $found_posts / $posts_per_page
  • $current_post-(available during The Loop) Index of the post currently being displayed.
  • $post-(available during The Loop) The post currently being displayed.
    • $post>ID – ID of the current post.
    • $post–>post_category – Retrieves the ID of the post category.
    • $post–>post_parent – ID of the page parent. Useful for creating custom navigational elements.
    • $post–>post_title – Post Title
    • $post–>post_excerpt – Post excerpt
    • $post>post_content – Retrieves all of the post content, along with any markup.
    • $post–>post_name – Retrieving the slug of a post.
    • $post–>guid – Post Url
    • $post–>post_author – ID of post author post_parent
    • $post–>post_type – Returns the type, page or post.
    • $post–>menu_order – Returns the menu order as set in the post/page editing window. Often menu items are sorted via this value.
    • $post–>post_date – Retrieves the integer timestamp for when the post was published. The output can be customized.
    • $post–>post_modified – Retrieves the integer timestamp for when the post was last modified.
    • $post–>post_status – Retrieves one of five possible posts statuses: publish, private, draft, pending, future.
    • $post–>comment_count – Returns the number of comments, pings, and trackbacks for a given post.
  • $is_single
  • $is_page
  • $is_archive
  • $is_preview
  • $is_date
  • $is_year
  • $is_month
  • $is_time
  • $is_author
  • $is_category
  • $is_tag
  • $is_tax
  • $is_search
  • $is_feed
  • $is_comment_feed
  • $is_trackback
  • $is_home
  • $is_404
  • $is_comments_popup
  • $is_admin
  • $is_attachment
  • $is_singular
  • $is_robots
  • $is_posts_page
  • $is_paged

Parametri objekta WP_Query

  • Author

    • author(int) – use author id.
    • author_name(string) – use ‘user_nicename’ – NOT name.
    • author__in(array) .
    • author__not_in(array) .
    Primeri:

    Show Posts for one Author

    Display posts by author, using author id:

    Display posts by author, using author ‘user_nicename’:

    Show Posts From Several Authors

    Display posts from several specific authors:

    Exclude Posts Belonging to an Author

    Display all posts except those from an author(singular) by prefixing its id with a ‘-‘ (minus) sign:

    Multiple Author Handling

    Display posts from multiple authors:

    You can also exclude multiple author this way:

  • Category

    • cat(int) – use category id.
    • category_name(string) – use category slug.
    • category__and(array) – use category id.
    • category__in(array) – use category id.
    • category__not_in(array) – use category id.

    Show Posts for One Category

    Display posts that have this category (and any children of that category), using category id:

    Display posts that have this category (and any children of that category), using category slug:

    Display posts that have this category (not children of that category), using category id:

    Show Posts From Several Categories

    Display posts that have these categories, using category id:

    Display posts that have these categories, using category slug:

    Display posts that have “all” of these categories:

    Exclude Posts Belonging to Category

    Display all posts except those from a category by prefixing its id with a ‘-‘ (minus) sign.

    Multiple Category Handling

    Display posts that are in multiple categories. This shows posts that are in both categories 2 and 6:

    To display posts from either category 2 OR 6, you could use cat as mentioned above, or by using category__in (note this does not show posts from any children of these categories):

    You can also exclude multiple categories this way:

  • Tag

    • tag(string) – use tag slug.
    • tag_id(int) – use tag id.
    • tag__and(array) – use tag ids.
    • tag__in(array) – use tag ids.
    • tag__not_in(array) – use tag ids.
    • tag_slug__and(array) – use tag slugs.
    • tag_slug__in(array) – use tag slugs.

    Show Posts for One Tag

    Display posts that have this tag, using tag slug:

    Display posts that have this tag, using tag id:

    Show Posts From Several Tags

    Display posts that have “either” of these tags:

    Display posts that have “all” of these tags:

    Multiple Tag Handling

    Display posts that are tagged with both tag id 37 and tag id 47:

    To display posts from either tag id 37 or 47, you could use tag as mentioned above, or explicitly specify by using tag__in:

    Display posts that do not have any of the two tag ids 37 and 47:

    The tag_slug__in and tag_slug__and behave much the same, except match against the tag’s slug.

  • Taxonomy

    • {tax}(string) – use taxonomy slug. (Deprecatedsince Version 3.1 in favor of ‘tax_query’).
    • tax_query(array) – use taxonomy parameters (available since Version 3.1).
      • relation(string) – The logical relationship between each inner taxonomy array when there is more than one. Possible values are ‘AND’, ‘OR’. Do
        not use with a single inner taxonomy array.

        • taxonomy(string) – Taxonomy.
        • field(string) – Select taxonomy term by. Possible values are ‘term_id’, ‘name’ and ‘slug’. Default value is ‘term_id’.
        • terms(int/string/array) – Taxonomy term(s).
        • include_children(boolean) – Whether or not to include children for hierarchical taxonomies. Defaults to true.
        • operator(string) – Operator to test. Possible values are ‘IN’, ‘NOT IN’, ‘AND’, ‘EXISTS’ and ‘NOT EXISTS’. Default value is ‘IN’.

    Simple Taxonomy Query:

    Display posts tagged with bob, under people custom taxonomy:

    Multiple Taxonomy Handling:

    Display posts from several custom taxonomies:

    Display posts that are in the quotes category OR have the quote <a href=”/Post_Formats” title=”Post Formats”>format</a>:

    Nested Taxonomy Handling:

    The ‘tax_query’ clauses can be nested, to create more complex queries. Example: Display posts that are in the quotes category OR both have the quote post format AND are in the wisdom category:

  • Post & Page

    • p(int) – use post id.
    • name(string) – use post slug.
    • page_id(int) – use page id.
    • pagename(string) – use page slug.
    • post_parent(int) – use page id to return only child pages. Set to 0 to return only top-level entries.
    • post_parent__in(array) – use post ids. Specify posts whose parent is in an array. (available since Version 3.6)
    • post_parent__not_in(array) – use post ids. Specify posts whose parent is not in an array. (available since Version 3.6)
    • post__in(array) – use post ids. Specify posts to retrieve. ATTENTIONIf you use sticky posts, they will be included (prepended!) in the posts
      you retrieve whether you want it or not. To suppress this behaviour use ignore_sticky_posts.
    • post__not_in(array) – use post ids. Specify post NOT to retrieve.
    • post_name__in(array) – use post slugs. Specify posts to retrieve. (Will be available in Version 4.4)

    Show Post/Page by ID

    Display post by ID:

    Display page by ID:

    Show Post/Page by Slug

    Display post by slug:

    Display page by slug:

    Show Child Posts/Pages

    Display child page using the slug of the parent and the child page, separated by a slash (e.g. ‘parent_slug/child_slug’):

    Display child pages using parent page ID:

    Display only top-level pages, exclude all child pages:

    Display posts whose parent is in an array:

    Multiple Posts/Pages Handling

    Display only the specific posts:

    Display all posts but NOT the specified ones:

    Note: you cannot combine post__in and post__not_in in the same query.

    Also note that using a string containing a comma separated list will not work here. If you’re passing a variable, make sure it’s a proper array of integer values:

  • Pasword

    • has_password(bool) – true for posts with passwords ; false for posts without passwords ; null for all posts with and without passwords
      (available since Version 3.9).
    • post_password(string) – show posts with a particular password (available since Version 3.9)

    Show Posts with/without passwords

    Display only password protected posts:

    Display only posts without passwords:

    Display only posts with and without passwords:

    Show Posts with particular password

    Display posts with ‘zxcvbn’ password:

  • Type

    post_type(string / array) – use post types. Retrieves posts by Post Types, default value is ‘post’. If ‘tax_query’ is set for a
    query, the default value becomes ‘any’;

    • ‘post’ – a post.
    • ‘page’ – a page.
    • ‘revision’ – a revision.
    • ‘attachment’ – an attachment. Whilst the default WP_Query post_status is ‘publish’, attachments have a default post_status of ‘inherit’. This
      means no attachments will be returned unless you also explicitly set post_status to ‘inherit’ or ‘any’. (See post_status, below)
    • ‘nav_menu_item’ – a navigation menu item
    • ‘any’ – retrieves any type except revisions and types with ‘exclude_from_search’ set to true.
    • Custom Post Types (e.g. movies)

    Show Post by Type

    Display only pages:

    Display ‘any’ post type (retrieves any type except revisions and types with ‘exclude_from_search’ set to TRUE):

    Display multiple post types, including custom post types:

  • Status

    post_status(string / array) – use post status. Retrieves posts by Post Status. Default value is ‘publish’, but if the user is logged
    in, ‘private’ is added. And if the query is run in an admin context (administration area or AJAX call), protected statuses are added too. By default protected
    statuses are ‘future’, ‘draft’ and ‘pending’.

    • ‘publish’ – a published post or page.
    • ‘pending’ – post is pending review.
    • ‘draft’ – a post in draft status.
    • ‘auto-draft’ – a newly created post, with no content.
    • ‘future’ – a post to publish in the future.
    • ‘private’ – not visible to users who are not logged in.
    • ‘inherit’ – a revision. see get_children.
    • ‘trash’ – post is in trashbin (available since Version 2.9).
    • ‘any’ – retrieves any status except those from post statuses with ‘exclude_from_search’ set to true (i.e. trash and auto-draft).

    Show Post by Status

    Display only drafts:

    Display multiple post status:

    Display all attachments:

  • Pagination

    • nopaging(boolean) – show all posts or use pagination. Default value is ‘false’, use paging.
    • posts_per_page(int) – number of post to show per page (available since Version 2.1, replaced showpostsparameter). Defaults to the value specified in the reading settings for the number of posts to list.Use ‘posts_per_page’=>-1
      to show all posts (the ‘offset’ parameter is ignored with a -1 value). Set the ‘paged’ parameter if pagination is off after using this parameter.
      Note: if the query is in a feed, wordpress overwrites this parameter with the stored ‘posts_per_rss’ option. To reimpose the limit, try using the ‘post_limits’ filter,
      or filter ‘pre_option_posts_per_rss’ and return -1
    • posts_per_archive_page(int) – number of posts to show per page – on archive pages only. Over-rides posts_per_pageand showposts
      on pages where is_archive() or is_search() would be true.
    • offset(int) – number of post to displace or pass over. Warning: Setting the offset parameter overrides/ignores the paged parameter and
      breaks pagination (Click here for a workaround). The ‘offset’ parameter is ignored when ‘posts_per_page’=>-1 (show all posts) is used.
    • paged(int) – number of page. Show the posts that would normally show up just on page X when using the “Older Entries” link.
    • page(int) – number of page for a static front page. Show the posts that would normally show up just on page X of a Static Front Page.
    • ignore_sticky_posts(boolean) – ignore post stickiness (available since Version 3.1, replaced caller_get_postsparameter).
      false (default): move sticky posts to the start of the set. true: do not move sticky posts to the start of the set.

    Show x Posts per page

    Display 3 posts per page:

    Show All Post

    Display all posts in one page:

    Display all posts by disabling pagination:

    Pass over Posts

    Display posts from the 4th one:

    Display 5 posts per page which follow the 3 most recent posts:

    Show Posts from page x

    Display posts from page number 6:

    Show Posts from Current Page

    Display posts from current page:

    Display posts from the current page and set the ‘paged’ parameter to 1 when the query variable is not set (first page).

    Pagination Note: Use get_query_var(‘page’); if you want your query to work in a Page template that you’ve set as your static front page. The query variable ‘page’ also holds the pagenumber for a single paginated Post or Page that includes the <!--nextpage--> Quicktag in the post content.

    Display posts from current page on a static front page:

    Show Sticky Posts

    Display just the first sticky post:

    Display just the first sticky post, if none return the last post published:

    Display just the first sticky post, if none return nothing:

    Don’t Show Sticky Posts

    Exclude all sticky posts from the query:

    Exclude sticky posts from a category. Return ALL posts within the category, but don’t show sticky posts at the top. The ‘sticky posts’ will still show in their natural position (e.g. by date):

    Exclude sticky posts from a category. Return posts within the category, but exclude sticky posts completely, and adhere to paging rules:

  • Order

    orderby(string | array) – Sort retrieved posts by parameter. Defaults to ‘date (post_date)’. One or more options can be passed.
    orderby(string | array) – Sort retrieved posts by parameter. Defaults to ‘date (post_date)’. One or more options can be passed.

    • ‘none’ – No order (available since Version 2.8).
    • ‘ID’ – Order by post id. Note the capitalization.
    • ‘author’ – Order by author.
    • ‘title’ – Order by title.
    • ‘name’ – Order by post name (post slug).
    • ‘type’ – Order by post type (available since Version 4.0).
    • ‘date’ – Order by date.
    • ‘modified’ – Order by last modified date.
    • ‘parent’ – Order by post/page parent id.
    • ‘rand’ – Random order.
    • ‘comment_count’ – Order by number of comments (available since Version 2.9).
    • ‘menu_order’ – Order by Page Order. Used most often for Pages (Order field in the Edit Page Attributes box) and for Attachments (the integer fields in
      the Insert / Upload Media Gallery dialog), but could be used for any post type with distinct ‘menu_order’ values (they all default to 0).
    • ‘meta_value’ – Note that a ‘meta_key=keyname’ must also be present in the query. Note also that the sorting will be alphabetical which is fine for
      strings (i.e. words), but can be unexpected for numbers (e.g. 1, 3, 34, 4, 56, 6, etc, rather than 1, 3, 4, 6, 34, 56 as you might naturally expect). Use ‘meta_value_num’
      instead for numeric values. You may also specify ‘meta_type’ if you want to cast the meta value as a specific type. Possible values are ‘NUMERIC’, ‘BINARY’,
      ‘CHAR’, ‘DATE’, ‘DATETIME’, ‘DECIMAL’, ‘SIGNED’, ‘TIME’, ‘UNSIGNED’, same as in ‘$meta_query’.
    • ‘meta_value_num’ – Order by numeric meta value (available since Version 2.8). Also note that a ‘meta_key=keyname’ must also be present in the query.
      This value allows for numerical sorting as noted above in ‘meta_value’.
    • ‘post__in’ – Preserve post ID order given in the post__in array (available since Version 3.5).

    Show Posts sorted by Title, Descending order

    Display posts sorted by post ‘title’ in a descending order:

    Display posts sorted by ‘menu_order’ with a fallback to post ‘title’, in a descending order:

    Show Random Post

    Display one random post:

    Show Popular Posts

    Display posts ordered by comment count:

    Show Products sorted by Price

    Display posts with ‘Product’ type ordered by ‘Price’ custom field:

    Multiple ‘orderby’ values

    Display pages ordered by ‘title’ and ‘menu_order’. (title is dominant):

    Multiple ‘orderby’ values using an array

    Display pages ordered by ‘title’ and ‘menu_order’ with different sort orders (ASC/DESC) (available since Version 4.0):

    Mulitiple orderby/order pairs

    orderby’ with ‘meta_value’ and custom post type

    Display posts of type ‘my_custom_post_type’, ordered by ‘age’, and filtered to show only ages 3 and 4 (using meta_query).

  • Date

    • year(int) – 4 digit year (e.g. 2011).
    • monthnum(int) – Month number (from 1 to 12).
    • w(int) – Week of the year (from 0 to 53). Uses MySQL WEEK command. The mode is dependent on the “start_of_week” option.
    • day(int) – Day of the month (from 1 to 31).
    • hour(int) – Hour (from 0 to 23).
    • minute(int) – Minute (from 0 to 60).
    • second(int) – Second (0 to 60).
    • m(int) – YearMonth (For e.g.: 201307).
    • date_query(array) – Date parameters (available since Version 3.7).

    Returns posts dated December 12, 2012:

    or:

    Returns posts for today:

    or:

    Returns posts for this week:

    or:

    Return posts between 9AM to 5PM on weekdays

    Return posts from January 1st to February 28th

    Note that if a strtotime()-compatible string with just a date was passed in the before parameter, this will be converted to 00:00:00 on that date. In this case, even if inclusive was set to true, the date would not be included in the query. If you want a before date to be inclusive, include the time as well, such as ‘before’ => ‘2013-02-28 23:59:59’, or use the array format, which is adjusted automatically if inclusive is set.

    Return posts made over a year ago but modified in the past month

  • Custom Field

    • meta_key(string) – Custom field key.
    • meta_value(string) – Custom field value.
    • meta_value_num(number) – Custom field value.
    • meta_compare(string) – Operator to test the ‘meta_value’. Possible values are ‘=’, ‘!=’, ‘>’, ‘>=’, ‘<‘, ‘<=’, ‘LIKE’, ‘NOT
      LIKE’, ‘IN’, ‘NOT IN’, ‘BETWEEN’, ‘NOT BETWEEN’, ‘NOT EXISTS’, ‘REGEXP’, ‘NOT REGEXP’ or ‘RLIKE’. Default value is ‘=’.
    • meta_query(array) – Custom field parameters (available since Version 3.1).
      • relation(string) – The logical relationship between each inner meta_query array when there is more than one. Possible values are ‘AND’, ‘OR’. Do
        not use with a single inner meta_query array.

    Simple Custom Field Query:

    Display posts where the custom field key is ‘color’, regardless of the custom field value:

    Display posts where the custom field value is ‘blue’, regardless of the custom field key:

    Display Page where the custom field value is ‘blue’, regardless of the custom field key:

    Display posts where the custom field key is ‘color’ and the custom field value is ‘blue’:

    Display posts where the custom field key is ‘color’ and the custom field value IS NOT ‘blue’:

    Display posts where the custom field key is a set date and the custom field value is now. Displays only posts which date has not passed.

    Display ‘product'(s) where the custom field key is ‘price’ and the custom field value that is LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 22.
    By using the ‘meta_value’ parameter the value 99 will be considered greater than 100 as the data are stored as ‘strings’, not ‘numbers’. For number comparison use ‘meta_value_num’.

    Display posts with a custom field value of zero (0), regardless of the custom field key:

    Single Custom Field Handling:

    Display posts from a single custom field:

    (Note that meta_query expects nested arrays, even if you only have one query.)

    Multiple Custom Field Handling:

    Display posts from several custom field:

    Display posts that have meta key ‘color’ NOT LIKE value ‘blue’ OR meta key ‘price’ with values BETWEEN 20 and 100:

    The ‘meta_query’ clauses can be nested in order to construct complex queries. For example, show productss where color=orange OR color=red&size=small translates to the following:


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